Diabetes Type II Pathophysiology - Site Diabetes Saltar al contenido
Site Diabetes

Diabetes Type II Pathophysiology

mayo 18, 2018

Hello in this video we’re gonna talk about diabetes pathophysiology this is an overview specifically focusing on diabetes type 2 diabetes type 2 is a problem where the hormone insulin which is normally secreted by the pancreas does not actually work properly the pancreas is an organ sitting behind the stomach and secretes many things for digestion but also it produces and secretes hormones which are very important for metabolism one of these hormones is insulin which is produced in response to high blood glucose an example is after we eat glucose enters our blood and then here it will stimulate the pancreas to produce insulin if we’re continuing on with the pathophysiology of diabetes we actually need to understand what normally happens and how insulin works in a normal scenario so again here is the circulation here is the liver and here is the pancreas the pancreas is the organ that produces insulin and here is the adipose tissue fat basically and here is the muscle cells skeletal muscles and on these organs on these cells of these organs there are receptors for insulin so again high blood glucose will stimulate insulin production and insulin release from the pancreas the insulin will then target these different organs by binding onto insulin receptors or insulin sensitive proteins with the sole purpose of decreasing blood glucose levels the binding of insulin to its receptor or protein triggers a cascade of events within cell leading to the increased uptake of glucose from circulation into this is done for example by producing more glucose channels or transporters on the surface of cells allowing glucose to move from the blood into the cells of the organs insulin also promotes glucose storage in the liver insulin stimulates glycolysis and glyco Genesis to store glucose as glycogen insulin also stimulates glucose to be stored as fat which will be subsequently transported to adipose tissue so going back to our first diagram remember high blood glucose stimulates insulin release in type 2 diabetes there is insulin resistance which means that the receptors insulin works on usually does not actually work properly or as effectively and so insulin essentially does not work properly on liver adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and as a result there will be high blood glucose levels for longer periods of time now insulin resistance occurs because of a number of variety of factors including genetics family predisposition bad eating habits and also obesity so because of insulin resistance glucose cannot be taken up by all these different organs and so you have high blood glucose because there is high blood glucose the pancreas is told to secrete more insulin despite not changing the fact that insulin sensitivity is present with persistent high blood glucose the glucose will travel to the kidneys and be secreted out this is called glucose urea glucose urea will result in osmotic diuresis what does that mean well glucose will essentially drag water with it because it is a solute and so the person will stop peeing more polyuria with constant polyuria you get loss of water and you get loss of electrolytes the loss of water and the loss of electrolyte leads to two main things one dehydration because of the loss of water and two hyperosmolar state hyperosmolar state is a medical emergency which will not be really discussed here the dehydration will stimulate the brain to drink more water so we get polydipsia insulin resistance can actually lead to polyphagia which means the urge to eat more or the feeling of hunger and how does this happen well if there is high blood glucose and it doesn’t go into the tissues that need it though the organ will say hey I’m not receiving enough food feed me and so you get polyphagia prolonged dehydration in serious cases can lead to renal failure because of the decrease of blood flow going to the kidneys remember that insulin has many functions in the liver and because of insulin resistance glucose is not stored properly instead you can get the opposite you can get the liver actually releasing more glucose in the attempt to supply the organs that need it it is important to know that with prolonged insulin resistance eventually the cells in the pancreas that produces insulin called the beta cells these beta cells will atrophy because the body is not responding to the insulin properly and so this will further cause problems and the person the person who has diabetes will eventually need to be on insulin injections to compensate

Site Diabetes

Like most websites site diabetes uses cookies. In order to deliver a personalized, responsive service and to improve the site, we remember and store information about how you use it. This is done using simple text files called cookies which sit on your computer.